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Posts Tagged ‘Hemoglobin’

To live and function the human body needs energy, the majority of which is produced by the electron transport chain.  The end products from these enzyme catalyzed reactions are oxidized by the oxygen that you breathe and converted into water.  At the center of this complicated process is an incredible  protein that selectively transports oxygen to tissues in need and releases it on demand.  Hemoglobin is a protein carried by red blood cells that has selective affinity for iron, a metal critical to proper function of the body.  The importance of this protein is exemplified by what happens when it is broken.  Sickle Cell Anemia, for example, is caused by a mutation in the gene that codes for the protein.   In this case, the change of a single amino acid (glutamic acid to valine) damages its functionality such that the average life expectancies of people with this disease are only 42 years in males and 48 in women (S).  During this time, those afflicted also experience a host of quality of life maligning health problems, like chronic pain, increased risk of infection and heart disease and vaso-occlusive crises that occur when the misshapen blood cells block blood vessels.

Considering the structure, hemoglobin is a large protein made of four polypeptide chains, sewn together into a tetramer.  There are 2 β chains and two α chains, each of which having a net-like porphyrin ring system.  In human red blood cells, an iron atom is placed in the center of the ring structure, creating a coordinated system called a heme group.  The iron atom is the star of the system and makes the binding of oxygen possible.  It is in the +2 state and has octahedral symmetry, allowing 6 ligands to bind.  The 4 nitrogen atoms of the ring bond equatorially holding the Fe+2 in place, while from the bottom, a histadine amino acid from the protein super structure locks the Fe+2 atom in place.  The open top position is reserved for O2 binding, but in its absence a molecule of water usually takes its place in normal circumstances.

3D images showing the positions of the porphyrin ring, iron and histidine in the heme group. Nitrogen atoms are in blue, iron in red and carbon in the usual grey-black. (3D images courtesy of http://www.3dchem.com By all means check out the structures for yourself using their tremendously useful java based web tool!)

This same system is common throughout other enzymes and respiratory systems.  In humans, Cytochrome C  of the electron transport chain has a similar structure, except that the 6th (top) ligand is a methionine group.  The protein in this case is designed to transport electrons rather than oxygen molecules.  Myoglobin, which is found in muscles and also used for O2 transport, is structurally different, but utilizes a single porphyrin ring system, rather than four.  Enzymes, such as catalase and peroxidase,  also contain Fe manipulating systems similar to the above.  In other kinds of organisms too, the porphyrin ring is utilized in a variety of situations and complexed to many different metals depending on the conditions and needs of the creature involved.  Photosynthetic plants, for example, utilize the same ring, but the metal is magnesium.  Further, some bacteria are also known to use copper as the porphyrin metal of choice.

To make full advantage of this heme system, the binding of O2 in red blood cells is facilitated by a buffer system.  The concentration of any of the components of it increase or decrease the binding affinity of O2 at the hemoglobin binding site.  Proton (H+), CO2, Cl-, and 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) concentrations all have a role in the binding and release of O2 from hemoglobin.  For example, in tissues where the pH (H+ concentration) is acidic and the partial pressure of CO2 is high, the binding affinity of O2 at the binding site will be lowered and will induce hemoglobin to release its contents.  In the lungs, however, the O2 concentration is high compared to that of CO2, facilitating O2 binding.  Normally, BPG is found in equal amounts to hemoglobin, but in situations where O2 is in short supply this balance is undone by the increased production of BPG.  With BPG, binding to one of the active sites reduces the O2 binding affinity by about 25 times, thus when BPG concentration is high it pushes for a release of O2 into tissues that need it.

The larger Fe staggers the planar porphyrin ring, where as the smaller version fits better, contributing to stability.

Aside from outside effects promoting binding, there are effects coming essentially from the design of the system itself that have to be considered as well.  The question of why iron and not some other transition metal is of special relevance here.  Using iron as the central metal, in this case, yields benefits in terms of performance and binding specificity to oxygen.  Cobalt, for instance, is used in similar systems like those of vitamin B12’s corrin ring, but while both cobalt and iron contain d orbitals that could bind, only iron allows for the perfect balance between size and binding specificity in this system.  While unbound, the Fe+2 atom is just a little too large to fit into the normally planar porphyrin ring.  In this case, it is in a high spin state where the molecular orbitals are further away from the atom, giving it a larger size.  The high spin state is larger, because the Pauli exclusion principle prohibits the atom’s 3d electrons from getting too close to one another due to repulsions.  Thus, additional space is needed to house the electrons in orbitals further away.  However, when the Fe+2 binds to an oxygen molecule the electrons can be shuffled into orbitals that are closer to the atom.  Its orbital symmetry changes to a low spin symmetry and CLICK ! the Fe+2 shrinks just enough to fit snugly into the porphyrin ring system.

A silly, but useful comparison.

This part also contributes to a critically important finding: that the binding of O2 is cooperative, in that the binding of one O2 molecule will facilitate the binding of another until all four spaces are filled.  It has been experimentally determined that the binding energies (the Ka) are increasingly smaller for each molecule of O2 bound to hemoglobin.  This happens, in part, because of the protein’s structure.  When the O2 binds and the Fe+2 clicks into place, it pulls on the histadine residue below it, stretching the other protein superstructure bonds.  This pulls slightly on the other 3 Fe+2-histadine bonds.  Much like those dancing string toys, pulling on the string at the bottom causes the toy’s arms and legs to move in a concerted action, which is similar in a way to the physical reaction of the other binding sites.  The additional pulling on the other histadine residues facilitates binding of the other three, such that the binding energy is progressively reduced with each binding until all four slots are filled.

Other structural contributions also play a large role in binding specificity.  Above the plane of the porphyrin molecule lies another histadine residue that physically blocks the strongest and most effective bonding interactions from occurring.  Since the Fe+2 atom is locked into place, the best bonding interactions would come from ones that provide the most overlap of their molecular orbitals, which are those that are end-to-end.  However, with the histadine in the way, these are prevented from occurring.  This is a good thing, because strong covalent interactions in enzymatic reactions, like those seen in the binding of carbon monoxide (CO) for instance, are usually toxic and are difficult to break under normal conditions.  For head-to-head binding to CO, the interaction is estimated to approximately 1000 times as strong as those between O2, illustrating its toxic potential.  In this case, the CO-Fe binding is still strong, but not so much as to completely block removal.  People who have suffered CO inhalation are often given pure oxygen in an attempt to out pace CO binding and ensure that the person continues to have a supply of oxygen.  This hindered binding is also helpful in normal activity as well, since the binding symmetry to O2 is bent as well it further facilitates it’s release into tissues in need.

Yes, it’s about iron again, but it’s quite interesting stuff.

{sources available upon request}

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